According to the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI), only 4 countries (Nigeria, India, Pakistan and Afghanistan) remain polio-endemic, an all-time low.
The following countries, however, have recently reported imported polio cases or cases related to an importation in the past 6 months: Angola, Bangladesh, Cameroon, Chad, the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), Ethiopia, Kenya, Niger, Nepal, and Somalia. Of these countries, Bangladesh, DRC, and Kenya had previously been polio-free for over 5 years.
Outbreaks continue to be a risk until poliovirus is eliminated worldwide, and susceptible people are still at risk for infection. Therefore travelers should be sure they and their children are fully immunized against polio according to the recommendations below.
Current Vaccination Recommendations for U.S. Travelers
Vaccination is recommended for all travelers to polio-endemic or -epidemic areas. These areas include Africa, South Asia, Southeast Asia, and the Middle East.
Infants and Children
The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommends that all infants and children in the United States should receive 4 doses of inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV), administered at 2, 4, and 6?18 months and 4?6 years of age.
If accelerated protection is needed, the minimum interval between doses is 4 weeks, although the preferred interval between the second and third doses is 2 months.
Travelers who have received a primary series with either IPV or oral polio vaccine (OPV) should receive another dose of IPV before departure.
Available data do not indicate the need for more than a single lifetime booster dose with IPV.
Adults who are unvaccinated, incompletely vaccinated, or whose vaccination status is unknown should receive a full series of IPV.