HIV Experts at the WHO meeting identified a number of areas where additional research is required to inform the further development of male circumcision programmes. These included
the impact of male circumcision on sexual transmission from HIV-infected men to women;
the impact of male circumcision on the health of women for reasons other than HIV transmission (e.g. lessened rates of cancer of the cervix);
the risks and benefits of male circumcision for HIV-positive men;
the protective benefit of male circumcision in the case of insertive partners engaging in homosexual or heterosexual anal intercourse; and
research into the resources needed for, and most effective ways, to expand quality male circumcision services.
Research to determine whether there are modifications in perceptions and HIV risk behaviour over the longer term in men who are circumcised for HIV prevention, and in their communities, will also be essential.