It is a cyst formed in the liver or, less frequently, elsewhere, that contains larvae of the tapeworm Echinococcus granulosus, chiefly in ruminants, whose eggs are carried from the intestinal tract to the liver through the blood.


Sinusitis is inflammation of the linings of the sinuses that surround the nose. It is the inflammation of the mucous membranes of one or more of the sinuses. The sinuses are air-filled spaces in the skull behind the bones of the face and forehead that open up into the nasal cavity. They are lined with the mucous membrane and it produces a slimy secretion called as mucus to keep the nasal passageways moist and to trap dirt particles.


Cancer of the esophagus remains a devastating disease because it is usually not detected until it has progressed to an advanced incurable stage. Modern imaging techniques, including barium esophagraphy, contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS), and positron-emission tomography (PET), are powerful tools in the detection, diagnosis, and staging of this malignancy. Early detection remains the elusive but essential goal of research. Only surgical resection at a very early stage has been shown to improve survival rates in patients with this disease.


Corneal ulcer is an erosion or open sore in the outer layers of the cornea caused by infection, abrasion, foreign bodies, severe allergy, severe dryness of the eye, various types of inflammatory disorders, stress, and an impaired immune system. Symptoms include eye pain, redness, blurred vision, light sensitivity, increased tearing, or a white patch on the cornea.


Marjolin initially described malignant transformation of a chronic scar from a burn wound. But presently, the term Marjolin ulcer has been used interchangeably for malignant transformation of any chronic wound, including pressure sores, osteomyelitis, venous stasis ulcers, urethral fistulas, anal fistulas, and other traumatic wounds. This malignant transformation is, histologically, a well-differentiated squamous cell carcinoma.


Heel pain is a very common problem in present era. A number of patients knock at the door of Doctors daily for heel pain only. There are so many drugs under Homoeopathy for the same and very frequent failures are there in treating heel pain, and consequently the patient turn towards another sort of treatments. This is our lack of knowledge, nothing else. To over come these problems, we must first know the basic causes for heel pain.